Almost half of Britons drinking more due to Covid, survey finds

Britons have drunk more alcohol and smoked more cannabis due to loneliness, depression and anxiety during the pandemic, according to a leading study of drug-using behaviour.

Almost half (48%) of British respondents to the Global Drug Survey (GDS) disclosed they were drinking more alcohol than before the coronavirus outbreak, while 44% of cannabis users reported increased use of the drug.

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Cannabis use has increased among 44% of users during the coronavirus outbreak
Standfirst …
number

%
5
10
15
20
25
30
Usage increased a lot 21%
Increased a little 23%
Stayed the same 32%
Decreased a little 10%
Decreased a lot 14%
Guardian graphic. Source: Global drugs survey

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var indentL = elAxisX ? parseInt(elAxisX.dataset.lIndent, 10) : 0
var extendR = elAxisX ? parseInt(elAxisX.dataset.rIndent, 10) : 0
var isBarBased = elChart.getAttribute("data-id").toLowerCase().indexOf("bar") > -1

// responsive
function responsive() {
iframeMessenger.resize() // 1
rescaleSvgElements() // 2
updateYLabelWidths() // 3
updateXAxisTextPosition() // 4
updateChartHeight() // 5
}
responsive()

// handle event
var timeout = null
window.addEventListener(‘resize’, function(evt) {
if (timeout) window.clearTimeout(timeout)
timeout = window.setTimeout(function() {
responsive()
timeout = null
}, 200)
});

/* 1. iframe resize */
// iframeMessenger for embed in guardian’s page

/* 2. svg path or circle rescale */
function rescaleSvgElements() {
var width = 300
var elSvg = document.querySelector("svg")
if (elSvg) {
var svgWidth = elSvg.getBoundingClientRect().width
// line chart
var strokeWidth = Math.round(2*width*10/svgWidth)/10
var paths = Array.prototype.slice.call(document.querySelectorAll("path"))
paths.forEach(function(path) { path.setAttribute("stroke-width", strokeWidth); })
// plot chart
var r = Math.round(3*width*10/svgWidth)/10
var circles = Array.prototype.slice.call(document.querySelectorAll("circle"))
circles.forEach(function(circle) { circle.setAttribute("r", r); })
}}

/* 3. y label width update */
function updateYLabelWidths() {
if (elChart.getAttribute("data-res-y") === "false") return

const elRows = […elChart.querySelectorAll(".row")]
const elGroups = […elChart.querySelectorAll(".group")]
const elLegend = document.querySelector(".legend")
const labelWidth = elChart.querySelector(".label").offsetWidth
const chartWidth = elChart.offsetWidth
const isInline = labelWidth {
el.style.height = isInline ? "24px" : "auto"
})
elGroups.forEach(el => {
el.style.width = isInline ? "calc(" + 100 + "% – " + labelWidth + "px)" : "100%"
el.style.display = isInline ? "inline-block" : "block"
})

elAxisX.style.width = "calc(100% – " + ((isInline ? labelWidth : 0) + indentL + extendR + 1) + "px)"
elLegend.style.marginLeft = isInline ? labelWidth + "px" : 0
}

/* 4. x axis text position update */
function updateXAxisTextPosition() {
if (!elAxisX) return

var elsTick = elAxisX.querySelectorAll(".axis-x-tick")
var elTest = document.querySelector(".js-test-res")

// a. default width / left
var axisXWidth = elAxisX.offsetWidth
var maxWidth = elsTick[1].offsetLeft – elsTick[0].offsetLeft
var txtWidths = [].slice.call(elsText).map((el, i) => {
elTest.textContent = el.textContent
var txtWidth = elTest.offsetWidth + 2
var resWidth = Math.min(txtWidth, maxWidth)
el.style.width = resWidth + "px"
el.style.left = (elsTick[i].offsetLeft – resWidth / 2) * 100 / axisXWidth + "%"
el.style.textAlign = "center"
return txtWidth
})
elTest.textContent = ""

// b. adjust width if multi lines
var isMultiLine = txtWidths.find(w => w > maxWidth)
if (isMultiLine) {
[].slice.call(elsText).forEach((el, i) => {
var txtWidth = el.querySelector("span").offsetWidth + 1
var resWidth = Math.min(txtWidth, maxWidth)
el.style.width = resWidth + "px"
el.style.left = (elsTick[i].offsetLeft – resWidth / 2) * 100 / axisXWidth + "%"
})
}

// c. adjust two ends if out of frame
var iLast = elsTick.length – 1
var indent = parseInt(elAxisX.dataset.yIndent, 10) + indentL
var textStrLeft = (indent + elsTick[0].offsetLeft) – elsText[0].offsetWidth / 2
var textEndRight = (axisXWidth + extendR – elsTick[iLast].offsetLeft) – elsText[iLast].offsetWidth / 2
if (textStrLeft < 0) {
elsText[0].style.left = ((isBarBased ? 0 : 1) – indent) + "px"
elsText[0].style.textAlign = "left"
}
if (textEndRight 0) {
var elsAll = [].slice.call(elsText).concat([].slice.call(elsLabel))
var heights = elsAll.map(el => Math.ceil(el.offsetHeight))
var maxHeight = Math.max.apply(null, heights)
elChart.style.marginBottom = (maxHeight + 14) + "px"
}
}

” src=”#” frameborder=”0″>

The study found 40% of drinkers had increased their alcohol intake due to stress about the pandemic, with 27% doing so because they felt lonely and 29% because they were depressed.

Meanwhile, 37% of all cannabis users said they had increased their use of the drug due to anxiety about Covid, with 30% doing so because they felt lonely and the same proportion because they were depressed.

<iframe name="d5a06b1e-52f1-4412-b385-574303f64d62" class="atom__iframe" srcdoc="

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font-family: "Guardian Agate Sans 1 Web";
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font-weight: 700;
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font-family: "Guardian Egyptian Web";
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font-style: normal;
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font-style: normal;
font-stretch: normal;
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font-family: "Guardian Egyptian Web";
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font-family: "Guardian Egyptian Web";
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font-weight: 500;
font-style: normal;
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font-family: "Guardian Text Egyptian Web";
src: url("https://interactive.guim.co.uk/fonts/guss-webfonts/GuardianTextEgyptianWeb/GuardianTextEgyptianWeb-MediumItalic.eot");
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font-family: "Guardian Text Egyptian Web";
src: url("https://interactive.guim.co.uk/fonts/guss-webfonts/GuardianTextEgyptianWeb/GuardianTextEgyptianWeb-Bold.eot");
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font-family: "Guardian Text Egyptian Web";
src: url("https://interactive.guim.co.uk/fonts/guss-webfonts/GuardianTextEgyptianWeb/GuardianTextEgyptianWeb-BoldItalic.eot");
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font-family: "Guardian Text Egyptian Web";
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font-family: "Guardian Text Egyptian Web";
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font-family: "Guardian Text Sans Web";
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font-family: "GH Guardian Headline";
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font-family: "GH Guardian Headline";
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font-family: "GH Guardian Headline";
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font-family: "GH Guardian Headline";
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font-style: italic;
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url("https://interactive.guim.co.uk/fonts/guss-webfonts/GHGuardianHeadline/GHGuardianHeadline-Black.woff") format("woff"),
url("https://interactive.guim.co.uk/fonts/guss-webfonts/GHGuardianHeadline/GHGuardianHeadline-Black.ttf") format("truetype");
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url("https://interactive.guim.co.uk/fonts/guss-webfonts/GHGuardianHeadline/GHGuardianHeadline-BlackItalic.woff") format("woff"),
url("https://interactive.guim.co.uk/fonts/guss-webfonts/GHGuardianHeadline/GHGuardianHeadline-BlackItalic.ttf") format("truetype");
font-weight: 900;
font-style: italic;
}
.f-bar {
font-family: ‘Guardian Agate Sans 1 Web’, monospace;
color: #f1f1f1; /* n-5 */
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font-size: 13px;
font-family: "Guardian Text Sans Web", Helvetica, Arial, "Lucida Grande", sans-serif;
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border-top: 1px solid rgb(220, 220, 220);
border-bottom: 1px solid rgb(220, 220, 220);
padding: 6px 0 4px 0;
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margin-right: 4px;
border-radius: 2px;
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margin-left: 10px;
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color: #bdbdbd; /* n-3 */
font-family: "Guardian Text Sans Web", Helvetica, Arial, "Lucida Grande", sans-serif;
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position: absolute;
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stroke-linejoin: round;
}
.graph footer {
font-size: 12px;
line-height: 16px;
margin-top: 6px;
padding-top: 8px;
font-family: ‘Guardian Text Sans Web’, ‘Helvetica Neue’, Helvetica, Arial, ‘Lucida Grande’, sans-serif;
color: #767676;
}
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word-break: break-word;
}
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font-size: 13px;
font-family: ‘Guardian Agate Sans 1 Web’, monospace;
visibility: hidden;
}
/* end of TOTHINK */

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Nearly half of British drinkers have increased their alcohol consumption since the pandemic began
Standfirst …
number

%
10
20
30
40
Usage has only increased
No change
Only decreased
Mixed
Guardian graphic. Source: Global drugs survey

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” src=”#” frameborder=”0″>

The study found a stark difference in the impact of increasing consumption of alcohol and cannabis on respondents’ health. More than a quarter of cannabis users reported that increased use of the drug had improved their mental health.

In contrast, 30% of drinkers said increased alcohol consumption had worsened their mental health and 47% disclosed that their physical health had deteriorated.

Graphic

Increased use of both drugs due to anxiety, loneliness or depression was significantly higher among people with a pre-existing mental health or neurodevelopmental condition, according to the study.

That group of respondents were at least twice as likely to report worse mental health (38%) due to drinking more alcohol than those without such conditions (19%).

In contrast, the improvement in mental health from increased cannabis usage was the same for those who do and those who do not have such conditions (27%).

The study also found that social drinking moved online during the pandemic. The number of people drinking alone at home while on audio or video calls, such as Zoom meetings, or during “watch parties”, where friends view and discuss films and TV programmes together via group chat, increased from 17% to 38%.

Prof Adam Winstock, the chief executive of the Global Drug Survey, said: “People’s drug use is hugely dependent upon being able to socialise and when that ability goes away, people turn to drugs that they’re already familiar with – cannabis and alcohol. But the impact of increases of those two drugs is quite distinct, and those drinking more alcohol come off worse.”

Winstock, who is an honorary clinical professor at the Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care, University College London, said the findings raised the possibility that a small increase in cannabis use could help manage mental health problems.

He added: “Similarly if you look at the consequences of decreased cannabis use, 21% of those people with a mental health condition who smoked less cannabis reported that their mental health got worse.”

The consultant psychiatrist was cautious about the findings, suggesting that some people who reported their mental health improved were probably dependent on cannabis.

He added: “The evidence for cannabis treating psychiatric conditions is quite limited. But that’s what people are saying [works for them]. And we probably need more evidence, which is going to be difficult because it’s going to take a while for most psychiatrists of my generation to accept it can be useful.”

The GDS special edition on Covid-19 was developed as part of a global effort to understand the impact of the pandemic on people’s lives, with a specific focus on the use of alcohol and other drugs, mental health and relationships.

The survey, which received almost 60,000 responses worldwide, found sharp declines in the use of so-called party drugs such as MDMA and cocaine, with people turning to alcohol and cannabis because those drugs were easier to obtain.

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